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Multitenant : Backup and Recovery of a Container Database (CDB) and a Pluggable Database (PDB) in Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1)

The multitenant option brings with it a number of changes to the way we approach backup and recovery. This article provides a top-level view of what is available for basic backup and recovery of CDBs and PDBs.

This article does not include any mention of Flashback Database or general RMAN new features, which will be covered in a separate articles.

Related articles.

RMAN Connections

Unless stated otherwise, this article assumes connections to RMAN are using OS authentication. This means you are connecting to the root container in the CDB with "AS SYSDBA" privilege.

$ export ORAENV_ASK=NO
$ export ORACLE_SID=cdb1
$ . oraenv
The Oracle base remains unchanged with value /u01/app/oracle
$ export ORAENV_ASK=YES

$ rman target=/
Recovery Manager: Release 12.1.0.1.0 - Production on Sun Dec 22 17:03:20 2013

Copyright (c) 1982, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates.  All rights reserved.

connected to target database: CDB1 (DBID=797615285)

RMAN>

When connecting to a PDB to perform backup and recovery operations, the RMAN connection will look like the following. Notice the password prompt as no password was entered on the command line.

$ rman target=sys@pdb1
Recovery Manager: Release 12.1.0.1.0 - Production on Mon Dec 23 11:08:35 2013

Copyright (c) 1982, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates.  All rights reserved.

target database Password: 
connected to target database: CDB1 (DBID=797615285)

RMAN>

Backup

Container Database (CDB) Backup

Backup of a Container Database (CDB) is essentially the same as a non-Container Database. The main thing to remember is, by doing a full backup of the CDB you are also doing a full backup of all PDBs.

Connect to RMAN using OS authentication and take a full backup using the following command. This means you are connecting to the root container with "AS SYSDBA" privilege.

$ rman target=/

RMAN> BACKUP DATABASE PLUS ARCHIVELOG;

A section of the output from the above backup command is shown below. Notice how the datafiles associated with the CBD (cdb1) and all the PDBs (pdb1, pdb2, pdb$seed) are included in the backup.

Starting backup at 22-DEC-13
using channel ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00003 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/cdb1/sysaux01.dbf
input datafile file number=00001 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/cdb1/system01.dbf
input datafile file number=00004 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/cdb1/undotbs01.dbf
input datafile file number=00006 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/cdb1/users01.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 22-DEC-13
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 22-DEC-13
piece handle=/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/CDB1/backupset/2013_12_22/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20131222T163015_9cg4wr40_.bkp tag=TAG20131222T163015 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:01:15
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00009 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/cdb1/pdb1/sysaux01.dbf
input datafile file number=00008 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/cdb1/pdb1/system01.dbf
input datafile file number=00010 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/cdb1/pdb1/pdb1_users01.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 22-DEC-13
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 22-DEC-13
piece handle=/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/CDB1/E45393F0DE5F1A8AE043D200A8C00DFC/backupset/2013_12_22/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20131222T163015_9cg4z3so_.bkp tag=TAG20131222T163015 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:35
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00030 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/pdb2/sysaux01.dbf
input datafile file number=00029 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/pdb2/system01.dbf
input datafile file number=00031 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/pdb2/pdb2_users01.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 22-DEC-13
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 22-DEC-13
piece handle=/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/CDB1/E4B0CA84B47E6183E043D200A8C0A806/backupset/2013_12_22/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20131222T163015_9cg50766_.bkp tag=TAG20131222T163015 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:35
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00007 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/cdb1/pdbseed/sysaux01.dbf
input datafile file number=00005 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/cdb1/pdbseed/system01.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 22-DEC-13
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 22-DEC-13
piece handle=/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/CDB1/E453004B82C71772E043D200A8C08EC5/backupset/2013_12_22/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20131222T163015_9cg51bmg_.bkp tag=TAG20131222T163015 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:36
Finished backup at 22-DEC-13

Root Container Backup

A backup of the root container is a backup of the CDB, excluding any of the PDBs.

Connect to RMAN using OS authentication and backup the root container using the following command. This means you are connecting to the root container with "AS SYSDBA" privilege.

$ rman target=/

RMAN> BACKUP DATABASE ROOT;

A section of the output from the above backup command is shown below. Notice how the datafiles associated with the CBD (cdb1) are included, but all the PDBs (pdb1, pdb2, pdb$seed) are not included in the backup.

Starting backup at 23-DEC-13
using channel ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00003 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/cdb1/sysaux01.dbf
input datafile file number=00001 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/cdb1/system01.dbf
input datafile file number=00004 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/cdb1/undotbs01.dbf
input datafile file number=00006 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/cdb1/users01.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 23-DEC-13
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 23-DEC-13
piece handle=/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/CDB1/backupset/2013_12_23/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20131223T112413_9cj7bxtg_.bkp tag=TAG20131223T112413 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:01:25
Finished backup at 23-DEC-13

Pluggable Database (PDB) Backup

There are two ways to back up pluggable databases. When connected to RMAN as the root container, you can backup one or more PDBs using the following command.

$ rman target=/

RMAN> BACKUP PLUGGABLE DATABASE pdb1, pdb2;

You can see this includes the datafiles for both referenced PDBs.

Starting backup at 23-DEC-13
using channel ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00009 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/cdb1/pdb1/sysaux01.dbf
input datafile file number=00008 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/cdb1/pdb1/system01.dbf
input datafile file number=00010 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/cdb1/pdb1/pdb1_users01.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 23-DEC-13
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 23-DEC-13
piece handle=/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/CDB1/E45393F0DE5F1A8AE043D200A8C00DFC/backupset/2013_12_23/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20131223T113119_9cj7r8lp_.bkp tag=TAG20131223T113119 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:35
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00030 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/pdb2/sysaux01.dbf
input datafile file number=00029 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/pdb2/system01.dbf
input datafile file number=00031 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/pdb2/pdb2_users01.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 23-DEC-13
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 23-DEC-13
piece handle=/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/CDB1/E4B0CA84B47E6183E043D200A8C0A806/backupset/2013_12_23/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20131223T113119_9cj7sfbx_.bkp tag=TAG20131223T113119 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:35
Finished backup at 23-DEC-13

Alternatively, connect to a specific PDB and issue the following command.

$ rman target=sys@pdb1

RMAN> BACKUP DATABASE;

Being connected to the PDB, this limits the scope of the backup command to the current PDB only, as shown in the output below.

Starting backup at 23-DEC-13
using target database control file instead of recovery catalog
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=237 device type=DISK
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00009 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/cdb1/pdb1/sysaux01.dbf
input datafile file number=00008 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/cdb1/pdb1/system01.dbf
input datafile file number=00010 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/cdb1/pdb1/pdb1_users01.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 23-DEC-13
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 23-DEC-13
piece handle=/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/CDB1/E45393F0DE5F1A8AE043D200A8C00DFC/backupset/2013_12_23/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20131223T113504_9cj7z9kb_.bkp tag=TAG20131223T113504 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:25
Finished backup at 23-DEC-13

Tablespace and Datafile Backups

Multiple PDBs in the same CDB can have a tablespace with the same name, for example SYSTEM, SYSAUX and USERS, so tablespace backups must be performed when connected to the appropriate PDB, to remove this ambiguity. Once RMAN is connected to the PDB, the tablespace backup commands is unchanged compared to previous versions.

$ rman target=sys@pdb1

RMAN> BACKUP TABLESPACE system, sysaux, users;

Datafiles have unique file numbers and fully qualified names, so they can be backed up from the root container or the individual PDB.

$ rman target=/

# Or

$ rman target=sys@pdb1

RMAN> BACKUP DATAFILE 8, 9, 10;

If you are connecting to a PDB, only the files belonging to that PDB can be backed up. So for example, when connected as PDB1, we get an error if we try to backup the SYSTEM datafile from the root container.

RMAN> BACKUP DATAFILE 1;

Starting backup at 23-DEC-13
using channel ORA_DISK_1
RMAN-00571: ===========================================================
RMAN-00569: =============== ERROR MESSAGE STACK FOLLOWS ===============
RMAN-00571: ===========================================================
RMAN-03002: failure of backup command at 12/23/2013 11:49:35
RMAN-20201: datafile not found in the recovery catalog
RMAN-06010: error while looking up datafile: 1

RMAN>

Complete Recovery

Container Database (CDB) Complete Recovery

Restoring a CDB is similar to restoring a non-CDB database, but remember restoring a whole CDB will restore not only the root container, but all the PDBs also. Likewise a Point In Time Recovery (PITR) of the whole CDB will bring all PDBs back to the same point in time.

Connect to RMAN using OS authentication and restore the whole CDB using the following restore script. This means you are connecting to the root container with "AS SYSDBA" privilege.

$ rman target=/

RUN {
  SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE; # use abort if this fails
  STARTUP MOUNT;
  RESTORE DATABASE;
  RECOVER DATABASE;
  ALTER DATABASE OPEN;
}

A section of the output from the above restore script is shown below. Notice the datafiles from the CDB (cdb1) and all the PDBs (pdb1, pdb2 and pdb$seed) are all considered during the restore. The seed PDB is not actually restored because it is read-only and RMAN can see a restore is not necessary.

Starting restore at 22-DEC-13
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=11 device type=DISK

skipping datafile 5; already restored to file /u01/app/oracle/oradata/cdb1/pdbseed/system01.dbf
skipping datafile 7; already restored to file /u01/app/oracle/oradata/cdb1/pdbseed/sysaux01.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile backup set restore
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) to restore from backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring datafile 00001 to /u01/app/oracle/oradata/cdb1/system01.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring datafile 00003 to /u01/app/oracle/oradata/cdb1/sysaux01.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring datafile 00004 to /u01/app/oracle/oradata/cdb1/undotbs01.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring datafile 00006 to /u01/app/oracle/oradata/cdb1/users01.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: reading from backup piece /u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/CDB1/backupset/2013_12_22/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20131222T163015_9cg4wr40_.bkp
channel ORA_DISK_1: piece handle=/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/CDB1/backupset/2013_12_22/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20131222T163015_9cg4wr40_.bkp tag=TAG20131222T163015
channel ORA_DISK_1: restored backup piece 1
channel ORA_DISK_1: restore complete, elapsed time: 00:00:56
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile backup set restore
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) to restore from backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring datafile 00008 to /u01/app/oracle/oradata/cdb1/pdb1/system01.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring datafile 00009 to /u01/app/oracle/oradata/cdb1/pdb1/sysaux01.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring datafile 00010 to /u01/app/oracle/oradata/cdb1/pdb1/pdb1_users01.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: reading from backup piece /u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/CDB1/E45393F0DE5F1A8AE043D200A8C00DFC/backupset/2013_12_22/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20131222T163015_9cg4z3so_.bkp
channel ORA_DISK_1: piece handle=/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/CDB1/E45393F0DE5F1A8AE043D200A8C00DFC/backupset/2013_12_22/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20131222T163015_9cg4z3so_.bkp tag=TAG20131222T163015
channel ORA_DISK_1: restored backup piece 1
channel ORA_DISK_1: restore complete, elapsed time: 00:00:25
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile backup set restore
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) to restore from backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring datafile 00029 to /u01/app/oracle/oradata/pdb2/system01.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring datafile 00030 to /u01/app/oracle/oradata/pdb2/sysaux01.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring datafile 00031 to /u01/app/oracle/oradata/pdb2/pdb2_users01.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: reading from backup piece /u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/CDB1/E4B0CA84B47E6183E043D200A8C0A806/backupset/2013_12_22/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20131222T163015_9cg50766_.bkp
channel ORA_DISK_1: piece handle=/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/CDB1/E4B0CA84B47E6183E043D200A8C0A806/backupset/2013_12_22/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20131222T163015_9cg50766_.bkp tag=TAG20131222T163015
channel ORA_DISK_1: restored backup piece 1
channel ORA_DISK_1: restore complete, elapsed time: 00:00:25
Finished restore at 22-DEC-13

Starting recover at 22-DEC-13
using channel ORA_DISK_1

starting media recovery
media recovery complete, elapsed time: 00:00:10

Finished recover at 22-DEC-13

Statement processed

Root Container Complete Recovery

Rather than recovering the whole CDB, including all PDBs, the root container can be recovered in isolation.

Connect to RMAN using OS authentication and restore the root container using the following restore script. This means you are connecting to the root container with "AS SYSDBA" privilege.

$ rman target=/

RUN {
  SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE; # use abort if this fails
  STARTUP MOUNT;
  RESTORE DATABASE ROOT;
  RECOVER DATABASE ROOT;
  # Consider recovering PDBs before opening.
  ALTER DATABASE OPEN;
}

The following section of the output from the restore script shows only the root container datafiles are restored and recovered.

Starting restore at 23-DEC-13
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=247 device type=DISK

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile backup set restore
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) to restore from backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring datafile 00001 to /u01/app/oracle/oradata/cdb1/system01.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring datafile 00003 to /u01/app/oracle/oradata/cdb1/sysaux01.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring datafile 00004 to /u01/app/oracle/oradata/cdb1/undotbs01.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring datafile 00006 to /u01/app/oracle/oradata/cdb1/users01.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: reading from backup piece /u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/CDB1/backupset/2013_12_23/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20131223T112413_9cj7bxtg_.bkp
channel ORA_DISK_1: piece handle=/u01/app/oracle/fast_recovery_area/CDB1/backupset/2013_12_23/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20131223T112413_9cj7bxtg_.bkp tag=TAG20131223T112413
channel ORA_DISK_1: restored backup piece 1
channel ORA_DISK_1: restore complete, elapsed time: 00:01:26
Finished restore at 23-DEC-13

Starting recover at 23-DEC-13
using channel ORA_DISK_1

starting media recovery
media recovery complete, elapsed time: 00:00:04

Finished recover at 23-DEC-13

It is probably a very bad idea to restore and recover just the root container without doing the same for the PDBs. Any difference in metadata between the two could prove problematic.

Pluggable Database (PDB) Complete Recovery

There are two ways to restore and recover PDBs. From to root containers, you can restore and recover one or more PDBs using the following script.

$ rman target=/

RUN {
  ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE pdb1, pdb2 CLOSE;
  RESTORE PLUGGABLE DATABASE pdb1, pdb2;
  RECOVER PLUGGABLE DATABASE pdb1, pdb2;
  ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE pdb1, pdb2 OPEN;
}

When connected directly to a PDB, you can restore and recover the current PDB using a local user with the SYSDBA privilege, as shown in the following script.

$ sqlplus sys@pdb1 as sysdba

CREATE USER admin_user IDENTIFIED BY admin_user;
GRANT CREATE SESSION, PDB_DBA, SYSDBA TO admin_user;
EXIT;

$ rman target=admin_user@pdb1

SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE;
RESTORE DATABASE;
RECOVER DATABASE;
STARTUP;

Note. In the current release, the RMAN commands will not work in a "run" script without producing errors.

Tablespace and Datafile Complete Recovery

Due to potential name clashes, restoring a tablespace must be done while connected to the PDB.

$ rman target=sys@pdb1

RUN {
  ALTER TABLESPACE users OFFLINE;
  RESTORE TABLESPACE users;
  RECOVER TABLESPACE users;
  ALTER TABLESPACE users ONLINE;
}

Datafile recoveries can be done while connected to the container or directly to the PDB.

$ rman target=/

# Or

$ rman target=sys@pdb1

RUN {
  ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE 10 OFFLINE;
  RESTORE DATAFILE 10;
  RECOVER DATAFILE 10;
  ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE 10 ONLINE;
}

Point In Time Recovery (PITR)

Container Database (CDB) Point In Time Recovery (PITR)

Point In Time Recovery (PITR) of a CDB is the same as that of non-CDB instances. Just remember, you are performing a PITR on the CDB and all the PDBs at once.

$ rman target=/

RUN {
  SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE; # use abort if this fails
  STARTUP MOUNT;
  SET UNTIL TIME "TO_DATE('23-DEC-2013 12:00:00','DD-MON-YYYY HH24:MI:SS')";
  RESTORE DATABASE;
  RECOVER DATABASE;
  # Should probably open read-only and check it out first.
  ALTER DATABASE OPEN RESETLOGS;
}

Pluggable Database (PDB) Point In Time Recovery (PITR)

Point In Time Recovery (PITR) of a PDB follows a similar pattern to that of a regular database. The PDB is closed, restored and recovered to the required point in time, then opened with the RESETLOGS option. In this case, the RESETLOGS option does nothing with the logfiles themselves, but creates a new PDB incarnation.

$ rman target=/

RUN {
  ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE pdb1 CLOSE;
  SET UNTIL TIME "TO_DATE('23-DEC-2013 12:00:00','DD-MON-YYYY HH24:MI:SS')";
  RESTORE PLUGGABLE DATABASE pdb1;
  RECOVER PLUGGABLE DATABASE pdb1;
  ALTER PLUGGABLE DATABASE pdb1 OPEN RESETLOGS;
}

The simplicity of PITR of PDBs hides a certain amount of complexity. For a start, a PDB shares the root container with other PDBs, so a PITR of the root container must be performed. This is done in the fast recovery area (FRA) provided it is configured. If the FRA is not configured, an AUXILIARY DESTINATION must be specified.

Aside from the FRA space requirement, one other important restriction is relevant. If a point in time recovery of a PDB has been done, it is not possible to directly flashback the database to a time before the PDB point in time recovery. The workaround for this is discussed in this article.

Table Point In Time Recovery (PITR) in PDBs

Oracle 12c includes a new RMAN feature which performs point in time recovery of tables using a single command. You can read about this feature and see examples of it's use in the following article.

The same mechanism is available for recovering tables in PDBs, with a few minor changes. For the feature to work with a PDB, you must log in as a root user with SYSDBA or SYSBACKUP privilege.

$ rman target=/

Issue the RECOVER TABLE command in a similar way to that shown for a non-CDB database, but include the OF PLUGGABLE DATABASE clause, as well as giving a suitable AUXILIARY DESTINATION location for the auxiliary database. The following command also uses the REMAP TABLE clause to give the recovered table a new name.

RECOVER TABLE 'TEST'.'T1' OF PLUGGABLE DATABASE pdb1
  UNTIL SCN 5695703
  AUXILIARY DESTINATION '/u01/aux'  
  REMAP TABLE 'TEST'.'T1':'T1_PREV';

Alternatively, you can just stop at the point where the recovered table is in a data pump dump file, which you can import manually at a later time. The following example uses the DATAPUMP DESTINATION, DUMP FILE and NOTABLEIMPORT clauses to achieve this.

RECOVER TABLE 'TEST'.'T1' OF PLUGGABLE DATABASE pdb1
  UNTIL SCN 5695703
  AUXILIARY DESTINATION '/u01/aux'
  DATAPUMP DESTINATION '/u01/export'
  DUMP FILE 'test_t1_prev.dmp'
  NOTABLEIMPORT;

For more information see:

Hope this helps. Regards Tim...

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