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SQL trace, 10046, trcsess and tkprof in Oracle

The quickest way to capture the SQL being processed by a session is to switch on SQL trace or set the 10046 event for a representative period of time. The resulting trace files can be read in their raw state or translated using the tkprof utility. Explaining the contents of the trace file is beyond the scope of this article, but the following sections explain how trace files can be created and processed.

Related articles.

Generating SQL Trace Files

There are numerous ways to enable, disable and vary the contents of this trace. The following methods have been available for several versions of the database.

-- All versions.
SQL> ALTER SESSION SET sql_trace=TRUE;
SQL> ALTER SESSION SET sql_trace=FALSE;

SQL> EXEC DBMS_SESSION.set_sql_trace(sql_trace => TRUE);
SQL> EXEC DBMS_SESSION.set_sql_trace(sql_trace => FALSE);

SQL> ALTER SESSION SET EVENTS '10046 trace name context forever, level 8';
SQL> ALTER SESSION SET EVENTS '10046 trace name context off';

SQL> EXEC DBMS_SYSTEM.set_sql_trace_in_session(sid=>123, serial#=>1234, sql_trace=>TRUE);
SQL> EXEC DBMS_SYSTEM.set_sql_trace_in_session(sid=>123, serial#=>1234, sql_trace=>FALSE);

SQL> EXEC DBMS_SYSTEM.set_ev(si=>123, se=>1234, ev=>10046, le=>8, nm=>' ');
SQL> EXEC DBMS_SYSTEM.set_ev(si=>123, se=>1234, ev=>10046, le=>0, nm=>' ');

-- Available from SQL*Plus since 8i (commandline utility prior to this.
SQL> CONN sys/password AS SYSDBA;  -- User must have SYSDBA.
SQL> ORADEBUG SETMYPID;            -- Debug current session.
SQL> ORADEBUG SETOSPID 1234;       -- Debug session with the specified OS process.
SQL> ORADEBUG SETORAPID 123456;    -- Debug session with the specified Oracle process ID.

SQL> ORADEBUG EVENT 10046 TRACE NAME CONTEXT FOREVER, LEVEL 12;
SQL> ORADEBUG TRACEFILE_NAME;      -- Display the current trace file.
SQL> ORADEBUG EVENT 10046 TRACE NAME CONTEXT OFF;
 
-- All versions, requires DBMS_SUPPORT package to be loaded.
SQL> EXEC DBMS_SUPPORT.start_trace(waits=>TRUE, binds=>FALSE);
SQL> EXEC DBMS_SUPPORT.stop_trace;

SQL> EXEC DBMS_SUPPORT.start_trace_in_session(sid=>123, serial=>1234, waits=>TRUE, binds=>FALSE);
SQL> EXEC DBMS_SUPPORT.stop_trace_in_session(sid=>123, serial=>1234);

The DBMS_SUPPORT package is not present by default, but can be loaded as the SYS user by executing the "@$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/dbmssupp.sql" script.

For methods that require tracing levels the following are valid values.

The same combinations are possible for those methods with boolean parameters for waits and binds.

With the advent of Oracle 10g the SQL tracing options have been centralized and extended using the DBMS_MONITOR package. The examples below show just a few possible variations for enabling and disabling SQL trace in Oracle 10g.

-- Oracle 10g
SQL> EXEC DBMS_MONITOR.session_trace_enable;
SQL> EXEC DBMS_MONITOR.session_trace_enable(waits=>TRUE, binds=>FALSE);
SQL> EXEC DBMS_MONITOR.session_trace_disable;

SQL> EXEC DBMS_MONITOR.session_trace_enable(session_id=>1234, serial_num=>1234);
SQL> EXEC DBMS_MONITOR.session_trace_enable(session_id =>1234, serial_num=>1234, waits=>TRUE, binds=>FALSE);
SQL> EXEC DBMS_MONITOR.session_trace_disable(session_id=>1234, serial_num=>1234);

SQL> EXEC DBMS_MONITOR.client_id_trace_enable(client_id=>'tim_hall');
SQL> EXEC DBMS_MONITOR.client_id_trace_enable(client_id=>'tim_hall', waits=>TRUE, binds=>FALSE);
SQL> EXEC DBMS_MONITOR.client_id_trace_disable(client_id=>'tim_hall');

SQL> EXEC DBMS_MONITOR.serv_mod_act_trace_enable(service_name=>'db10g', module_name=>'test_api', action_name=>'running');
SQL> EXEC DBMS_MONITOR.serv_mod_act_trace_enable(service_name=>'db10g', module_name=>'test_api', action_name=>'running', -
> waits=>TRUE, binds=>FALSE);
SQL> EXEC DBMS_MONITOR.serv_mod_act_trace_disable(service_name=>'db10g', module_name=>'test_api', action_name=>'running');

The package provides the conventional session level tracing along with two new variations. First, tracing can be enabled on multiple sessions based on the value of the client_identifier column of the V$SESSION view, set using the DBMS_SESSION package. Second, trace can be activated for multiple sessions based on various combinations of the service_name, module, action columns in the V$SESSION view, set using the DBMS_APPLICATION_INFO package, along with the instance_name in RAC environments. With all the possible permutations and default values this provides a high degree of flexibility.

Tracing Individual SQL Statements

SQL trace can be initiated for an individual SQL statement by substituting the required SQL_ID into the following statement.

SQL> ALTER SESSION SET EVENTS 'trace[rdbms.SQL_Optimizer.*][sql:sql_id]';

The SQL_ID of a statement can be found in the V$SQL or V$SQLSTAT view for recent SQL, or from the DBA_HIST_SQLSTAT view from the AWR repository for historical statements.

Identifying Trace Files

Oracle allows you to set the TRACEFILE_IDENTIFIER parameter at session level, allowing you to include some recognizable text into the trace file name.

ALTER SESSION SET TRACEFILE_IDENTIFIER = "MY_TEST_SESSION";

Even without this, we can easily identify the trace file for the current session using the USER_DUMP_DEST value with the instance name and the session's process id. The identify_trace_file.sql script combines these values to produce the expected trace file name.

SET LINESIZE 100
COLUMN trace_file FORMAT A60

SELECT s.sid,
       s.serial#,
       pa.value || '/' || LOWER(SYS_CONTEXT('userenv','instance_name')) ||    
       '_ora_' || p.spid || '.trc' AS trace_file
FROM   v$session s,
       v$process p,
       v$parameter pa
WHERE  pa.name = 'user_dump_dest'
AND    s.paddr = p.addr
AND    s.audsid = SYS_CONTEXT('USERENV', 'SESSIONID');

If you are using a windows environment you will need to alter the "/" to a "\" in the concatenated string.

Note. Identification of trace files is simpler in Oracle 11g due to the introduction of diagnostic views. The Oracle 11g version of the identify_trace_file.sql is shown below.

SET LINESIZE 100
COLUMN value FORMAT A60

SELECT value
FROM   v$diag_info
WHERE  name = 'Default Trace File';

trcsess

Activating trace on multiple sessions means that trace information is spread throughout many trace files. For this reason Oracle 10g introduced the trcsess utility, which allows trace information from multiple trace files to be identified and consolidated into a single trace file. The trcsess usage is listed below.

trcsess [output=<output file name >]  [session=<session ID>] [clientid=<clientid>]
        [service=<service name>] [action=<action name>] [module=<module name>] <trace file names>

output=<output file name> output destination default being standard output.
session=<session Id> session to be traced.
Session id is a combination of session Index & session serial number e.g. 8.13.
clientid=<clientid> clientid to be traced.
service=<service name> service to be traced.
action=<action name> action to be traced.
module=<module name> module to be traced.
<trace_file_names> Space separated list of trace files with wild card '*' supported.

With all these options the consolidated trace file can be as broad or as specific as needed.

tkprof

The SQL trace files produced by the methods discussed previously can be read in their raw form, or they can be translated by the tkprof utility into a more human readable form. The output below lists the usage notes from the tkprof utility in Oracle 10g.

$ tkprof
Usage: tkprof tracefile outputfile [explain= ] [table= ]
              [print= ] [insert= ] [sys= ] [sort= ]
  table=schema.tablename   Use 'schema.tablename' with 'explain=' option.
  explain=user/password    Connect to ORACLE and issue EXPLAIN PLAN.
  print=integer    List only the first 'integer' SQL statements.
  aggregate=yes|no
  insert=filename  List SQL statements and data inside INSERT statements.
  sys=no           TKPROF does not list SQL statements run as user SYS.
  record=filename  Record non-recursive statements found in the trace file.
  waits=yes|no     Record summary for any wait events found in the trace file.
  sort=option      Set of zero or more of the following sort options:
    prscnt  number of times parse was called
    prscpu  cpu time parsing
    prsela  elapsed time parsing
    prsdsk  number of disk reads during parse
    prsqry  number of buffers for consistent read during parse
    prscu   number of buffers for current read during parse
    prsmis  number of misses in library cache during parse
    execnt  number of execute was called
    execpu  cpu time spent executing
    exeela  elapsed time executing
    exedsk  number of disk reads during execute
    exeqry  number of buffers for consistent read during execute
    execu   number of buffers for current read during execute
    exerow  number of rows processed during execute
    exemis  number of library cache misses during execute
    fchcnt  number of times fetch was called
    fchcpu  cpu time spent fetching
    fchela  elapsed time fetching
    fchdsk  number of disk reads during fetch
    fchqry  number of buffers for consistent read during fetch
    fchcu   number of buffers for current read during fetch
    fchrow  number of rows fetched
    userid  userid of user that parsed the cursor

$

The waits parameter was only added in Oracle 9i, so prior to this version wait information had to be read from the raw trace file. The values of bind variables must be read from the raw files as they are not displayed in the tkprof output.

The following section shows an example of gathering SQL trace for a session to give you an idea of the whole process.

Trace Example

The following script creates a test table and a procedure that populates it. This procedure will be the subject of our example trace.

CREATE TABLE sql_trace_test (
  id  NUMBER,
  description  VARCHAR2(50)
);

EXEC DBMS_STATS.gather_table_stats('test', 'sql_trace_test');

CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE populate_sql_trace_test (p_loops  IN  NUMBER) AS
  l_number  NUMBER;
BEGIN
  FOR i IN 1 .. p_loops LOOP
    INSERT INTO sql_trace_test (id, description)
    VALUES (i, 'Description for ' || i);
  END LOOP;
  
  SELECT COUNT(*)
  INTO   l_number
  FROM   sql_trace_test;
  
  COMMIT;
  
  DBMS_OUTPUT.put_line(l_number || ' rows inserted.');
END;
/
SHOW ERRORS

Gathering the statistics on the empty table may seem odd, but this prevents any dynamic sampling being added to the trace file contents, which would only serve to complicate the file.

Next, we identify the trace file for the current session.

SQL> @identify_trace_file.sql

       SID    SERIAL# TRACE_FILE
---------- ---------- ------------------------------------------------------------
       130      26739 /u01/app/oracle/admin/DEV/udump/dev1_ora_367660.trc

1 row selected.

SQL>

Now we know the name of the trace file we can enable tracing, execute the procedure and disable tracing.

SQL> ALTER SESSION SET EVENTS '10046 trace name context forever, level 8';

Session altered.

SQL> SET SERVEROUTPUT ON
SQL> EXEC populate_sql_trace_test(p_loops => 5);
5 rows inserted.

PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.

SQL> ALTER SESSION SET EVENTS '10046 trace name context off';

Session altered.

SQL>

The contents of the file are listed below. The output looks a little confusing, but you can identify the individual statements and their associated waits and statistics.

/u01/app/oracle/admin/DEV/udump/dev1_ora_367660.trc
Oracle Database 10g Enterprise Edition Release 10.1.0.3.0 - Production
With the Partitioning, Oracle Label Security, OLAP and Data Mining options
ORACLE_HOME = /u01/app/oracle/product/10.1.0/db_1
System name:	OSF1
Node name:	dbserver.oracle-base.com
Release:	V5.1
Version:	2650
Machine:	alpha
Instance name: DEV1
Redo thread mounted by this instance: 1
Oracle process number: 16
Unix process pid: 367660, image: oracleDEV1@dbserver.oracle-base.com

*** 2005-04-05 09:46:51.499
*** ACTION NAME:() 2005-04-05 09:46:51.499
*** MODULE NAME:(SQL*Plus) 2005-04-05 09:46:51.499
*** SERVICE NAME:(SYS$USERS) 2005-04-05 09:46:51.499
*** SESSION ID:(130.26739) 2005-04-05 09:46:51.499
=====================
PARSING IN CURSOR #29 len=68 dep=0 uid=180 oct=42 lid=180 tim=11746409761792 hv=3847243385 ad='2bb57798'
ALTER SESSION SET EVENTS '10046 trace name context forever, level 8'
END OF STMT
EXEC #29:c=0,e=1024,p=0,cr=0,cu=0,mis=0,r=0,dep=0,og=1,tim=11746409761792
WAIT #29: nam='SQL*Net message to client' ela= 0 p1=1413697536 p2=1 p3=0
WAIT #29: nam='SQL*Net message from client' ela= 7358464 p1=1413697536 p2=1 p3=0
=====================
PARSING IN CURSOR #4 len=36 dep=0 uid=180 oct=47 lid=180 tim=11746417122304 hv=3425213768 ad='2c631cd8'
BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.ENABLE(2000); END;
END OF STMT
PARSE #4:c=0,e=1024,p=0,cr=0,cu=0,mis=0,r=0,dep=0,og=1,tim=11746417122304
EXEC #4:c=0,e=0,p=0,cr=0,cu=0,mis=0,r=1,dep=0,og=1,tim=11746417122304
WAIT #4: nam='SQL*Net message to client' ela= 0 p1=1413697536 p2=1 p3=0
WAIT #4: nam='SQL*Net message from client' ela= 6924288 p1=1413697536 p2=1 p3=0
=====================
PARSING IN CURSOR #18 len=51 dep=0 uid=180 oct=47 lid=180 tim=11746424051712 hv=2083693016 ad='27ecb338'
BEGIN populate_sql_trace_test(p_loops => 5); END;
END OF STMT
PARSE #18:c=0,e=3072,p=0,cr=0,cu=0,mis=1,r=0,dep=0,og=1,tim=11746424051712
=====================
PARSING IN CURSOR #19 len=86 dep=1 uid=180 oct=2 lid=180 tim=11746424052736 hv=3247833140 ad='28fa57f8'
INSERT INTO SQL_TRACE_TEST (ID, DESCRIPTION) VALUES (:B1 , 'Description for ' || :B1 )
END OF STMT
PARSE #19:c=0,e=1024,p=0,cr=0,cu=0,mis=1,r=0,dep=1,og=1,tim=11746424052736
=====================
PARSING IN CURSOR #23 len=69 dep=2 uid=0 oct=3 lid=0 tim=11746424053760 hv=1471956217 ad='2e7591f0'
select con#,obj#,rcon#,enabled,nvl(defer,0) from cdef$ where robj#=:1
END OF STMT
PARSE #23:c=0,e=1024,p=0,cr=0,cu=0,mis=1,r=0,dep=2,og=4,tim=11746424053760
EXEC #23:c=0,e=5120,p=0,cr=0,cu=0,mis=1,r=0,dep=2,og=4,tim=11746424059904
FETCH #23:c=0,e=0,p=0,cr=2,cu=0,mis=0,r=0,dep=2,og=4,tim=11746424059904
=====================
PARSING IN CURSOR #25 len=146 dep=2 uid=0 oct=3 lid=0 tim=11746424065024 hv=2107929772 ad='2e7b4b08'
select con#,type#,condlength,intcols,robj#,rcon#,match#,refact,nvl(enabled,0),rowid,cols,nvl(defer,0)
,mtime,nvl(spare1,0) from cdef$ where obj#=:1
END OF STMT
PARSE #25:c=0,e=5120,p=0,cr=0,cu=0,mis=1,r=0,dep=2,og=4,tim=11746424065024
=====================
PARSING IN CURSOR #27 len=210 dep=3 uid=0 oct=3 lid=0 tim=11746424102912 hv=864012087 ad='2e351f08'
select /*+ rule */ bucket_cnt, row_cnt, cache_cnt, null_cnt, timestamp#, sample_size, minimum, maximum,
distcnt, lowval, hival, density, col#, spare1, spare2, avgcln from hist_head$ where obj#=:1 and intcol#=:2
END OF STMT
PARSE #27:c=50000,e=36864,p=0,cr=0,cu=0,mis=1,r=0,dep=3,og=3,tim=11746424102912
EXEC #27:c=16667,e=4096,p=0,cr=0,cu=0,mis=1,r=0,dep=3,og=3,tim=11746424108032
FETCH #27:c=0,e=1024,p=0,cr=3,cu=0,mis=0,r=1,dep=3,og=3,tim=11746424109056
EXEC #27:c=0,e=0,p=0,cr=0,cu=0,mis=0,r=0,dep=3,og=3,tim=11746424109056
FETCH #27:c=0,e=0,p=0,cr=3,cu=0,mis=0,r=1,dep=3,og=3,tim=11746424109056
EXEC #27:c=0,e=0,p=0,cr=0,cu=0,mis=0,r=0,dep=3,og=3,tim=11746424110080
FETCH #27:c=0,e=0,p=0,cr=3,cu=0,mis=0,r=1,dep=3,og=3,tim=11746424110080
=====================
PARSING IN CURSOR #28 len=121 dep=3 uid=0 oct=3 lid=0 tim=11746424119296 hv=3150898423 ad='2e347db8'
select /*+ rule */ bucket, endpoint, col#, epvalue from histgrm$ where obj#=:1 and intcol#=:2 and row#=:3
order by bucket
END OF STMT
PARSE #28:c=0,e=9216,p=0,cr=0,cu=0,mis=1,r=0,dep=3,og=3,tim=11746424119296
EXEC #28:c=0,e=1024,p=0,cr=0,cu=0,mis=1,r=0,dep=3,og=3,tim=11746424121344
FETCH #28:c=0,e=1024,p=0,cr=3,cu=0,mis=0,r=3,dep=3,og=3,tim=11746424122368
EXEC #27:c=0,e=0,p=0,cr=0,cu=0,mis=0,r=0,dep=3,og=3,tim=11746424122368
FETCH #27:c=0,e=0,p=0,cr=3,cu=0,mis=0,r=1,dep=3,og=3,tim=11746424122368
EXEC #27:c=0,e=0,p=0,cr=0,cu=0,mis=0,r=0,dep=3,og=3,tim=11746424123392
FETCH #27:c=0,e=0,p=0,cr=3,cu=0,mis=0,r=1,dep=3,og=3,tim=11746424123392
EXEC #25:c=83334,e=61440,p=0,cr=18,cu=0,mis=1,r=0,dep=2,og=4,tim=11746424126464
FETCH #25:c=0,e=0,p=0,cr=2,cu=0,mis=0,r=0,dep=2,og=4,tim=11746424126464
=====================
PARSING IN CURSOR #12 len=169 dep=2 uid=0 oct=3 lid=0 tim=11746424128512 hv=1173719687 ad='2e7c2c50'
select col#, grantee#, privilege#,max(mod(nvl(option$,0),2)) from objauth$ where obj#=:1 and col# is not null
group by privilege#, col#, grantee# order by col#, grantee#
END OF STMT
PARSE #12:c=0,e=1024,p=0,cr=0,cu=0,mis=1,r=0,dep=2,og=4,tim=11746424128512
EXEC #12:c=0,e=3072,p=0,cr=0,cu=0,mis=1,r=0,dep=2,og=4,tim=11746424131584
FETCH #12:c=0,e=0,p=0,cr=2,cu=0,mis=0,r=0,dep=2,og=4,tim=11746424131584
=====================
PARSING IN CURSOR #26 len=151 dep=2 uid=0 oct=3 lid=0 tim=11746424131584 hv=4139184264 ad='2e7cc608'
select grantee#,privilege#,nvl(col#,0),max(mod(nvl(option$,0),2))from objauth$ where obj#=:1 group by grantee#,
privilege#,nvl(col#,0) order by grantee#
END OF STMT
PARSE #26:c=0,e=0,p=0,cr=0,cu=0,mis=0,r=0,dep=2,og=4,tim=11746424131584
EXEC #26:c=0,e=0,p=0,cr=0,cu=0,mis=0,r=0,dep=2,og=4,tim=11746424131584
FETCH #26:c=0,e=1024,p=0,cr=2,cu=0,mis=0,r=0,dep=2,og=4,tim=11746424132608
=====================
PARSING IN CURSOR #7 len=175 dep=2 uid=0 oct=3 lid=0 tim=11746424132608 hv=1729330152 ad='2f3597a8'
select u.name,o.name, t.update$, t.insert$, t.delete$, t.enabled  from obj$ o,user$ u,trigger$ t  where 
t.baseobject=:1 and t.obj#=o.obj# and o.owner#=u.user#  order by o.obj#
END OF STMT
PARSE #7:c=0,e=0,p=0,cr=0,cu=0,mis=0,r=0,dep=2,og=4,tim=11746424132608
EXEC #7:c=0,e=0,p=0,cr=0,cu=0,mis=0,r=0,dep=2,og=4,tim=11746424132608
FETCH #7:c=0,e=0,p=0,cr=2,cu=0,mis=0,r=0,dep=2,og=4,tim=11746424132608
STAT #7 id=1 cnt=0 pid=0 pos=1 obj=0 op='SORT ORDER BY (cr=2 pr=0 pw=0 time=0 us)'
STAT #7 id=2 cnt=0 pid=1 pos=1 obj=0 op='NESTED LOOPS  (cr=2 pr=0 pw=0 time=0 us)'
STAT #7 id=3 cnt=0 pid=2 pos=1 obj=0 op='NESTED LOOPS  (cr=2 pr=0 pw=0 time=0 us)'
STAT #7 id=4 cnt=0 pid=3 pos=1 obj=84 op='TABLE ACCESS BY INDEX ROWID TRIGGER$ (cr=2 pr=0 pw=0 time=0 us)'
STAT #7 id=5 cnt=0 pid=4 pos=1 obj=128 op='INDEX RANGE SCAN I_TRIGGER1 (cr=2 pr=0 pw=0 time=0 us)'
STAT #7 id=6 cnt=0 pid=3 pos=2 obj=18 op='TABLE ACCESS BY INDEX ROWID OBJ$ (cr=0 pr=0 pw=0 time=0 us)'
STAT #7 id=7 cnt=0 pid=6 pos=1 obj=36 op='INDEX UNIQUE SCAN I_OBJ1 (cr=0 pr=0 pw=0 time=0 us)'
STAT #7 id=8 cnt=0 pid=2 pos=2 obj=22 op='TABLE ACCESS CLUSTER USER$ (cr=0 pr=0 pw=0 time=0 us)'
STAT #7 id=9 cnt=0 pid=8 pos=1 obj=11 op='INDEX UNIQUE SCAN I_USER# (cr=0 pr=0 pw=0 time=0 us)'
EXEC #19:c=83334,e=86016,p=0,cr=29,cu=21,mis=1,r=1,dep=1,og=1,tim=11746424138752
EXEC #19:c=0,e=0,p=0,cr=0,cu=1,mis=0,r=1,dep=1,og=1,tim=11746424138752
EXEC #19:c=0,e=0,p=0,cr=0,cu=1,mis=0,r=1,dep=1,og=1,tim=11746424138752
EXEC #19:c=0,e=0,p=0,cr=0,cu=1,mis=0,r=1,dep=1,og=1,tim=11746424139776
EXEC #19:c=0,e=0,p=0,cr=0,cu=1,mis=0,r=1,dep=1,og=1,tim=11746424139776
=====================
PARSING IN CURSOR #29 len=35 dep=1 uid=180 oct=3 lid=180 tim=11746424140800 hv=3788777626 ad='2c84eb58'
SELECT COUNT(*) FROM SQL_TRACE_TEST
END OF STMT
PARSE #29:c=0,e=1024,p=0,cr=0,cu=0,mis=1,r=0,dep=1,og=1,tim=11746424140800
EXEC #29:c=0,e=1024,p=0,cr=0,cu=0,mis=0,r=0,dep=1,og=1,tim=11746424141824
FETCH #29:c=0,e=0,p=0,cr=7,cu=0,mis=0,r=1,dep=1,og=1,tim=11746424141824
=====================
PARSING IN CURSOR #4 len=6 dep=1 uid=180 oct=44 lid=180 tim=11746424141824 hv=255718823 ad='2e5363f0'
COMMIT
END OF STMT
PARSE #4:c=0,e=0,p=0,cr=0,cu=0,mis=0,r=0,dep=1,og=1,tim=11746424141824
XCTEND rlbk=0, rd_only=0
EXEC #4:c=0,e=0,p=0,cr=0,cu=1,mis=0,r=0,dep=1,og=1,tim=11746424141824
EXEC #18:c=83334,e=91136,p=0,cr=36,cu=26,mis=0,r=1,dep=0,og=1,tim=11746424142848
WAIT #18: nam='SQL*Net message to client' ela= 0 p1=1413697536 p2=1 p3=0
WAIT #18: nam='SQL*Net message from client' ela= 1024 p1=1413697536 p2=1 p3=0
=====================
PARSING IN CURSOR #7 len=52 dep=0 uid=180 oct=47 lid=180 tim=11746424143872 hv=1029988163 ad='2c2ec1b8'
BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.GET_LINES(:LINES, :NUMLINES); END;
END OF STMT
PARSE #7:c=0,e=0,p=0,cr=0,cu=0,mis=0,r=0,dep=0,og=1,tim=11746424143872
WAIT #7: nam='SQL*Net message to client' ela= 0 p1=1413697536 p2=1 p3=0
EXEC #7:c=0,e=0,p=0,cr=0,cu=0,mis=0,r=1,dep=0,og=1,tim=11746424144896
WAIT #7: nam='SQL*Net message from client' ela= 8560640 p1=1413697536 p2=1 p3=0
=====================
PARSING IN CURSOR #12 len=55 dep=0 uid=180 oct=42 lid=180 tim=11746432706560 hv=2655499671 ad='2a24eab8'
ALTER SESSION SET EVENTS '10046 trace name context off'
END OF STMT
PARSE #12:c=0,e=0,p=0,cr=0,cu=0,mis=0,r=0,dep=0,og=1,tim=11746432705536
EXEC #12:c=0,e=0,p=0,cr=0,cu=0,mis=0,r=0,dep=0,og=1,tim=11746432706560

The following command uses the tkprof utility to translate the trace file, placing the translated output in the translated.txt file.The explain and table parameters have been set to allow execution plans to be displayed and the sys parameter prevents recursive SQL being displayed.

$ cd /u01/app/oracle/admin/DEV/udump/
$ tkprof dev1_ora_367660.trc translated.txt explain=test/test table=sys.plan_table sys=no waits=yes

TKPROF: Release 10.1.0.3.0 - Production on Tue Apr 5 09:22:43 2005

Copyright (c) 1982, 2004, Oracle.  All rights reserved.


$

The contents of the translated file are displayed below.

TKPROF: Release 10.1.0.3.0 - Production on Tue Apr 5 09:53:50 2005

Copyright (c) 1982, 2004, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Trace file: dev1_ora_367660.trc
Sort options: default

********************************************************************************
count    = number of times OCI procedure was executed
cpu      = cpu time in seconds executing 
elapsed  = elapsed time in seconds executing
disk     = number of physical reads of buffers from disk
query    = number of buffers gotten for consistent read
current  = number of buffers gotten in current mode (usually for update)
rows     = number of rows processed by the fetch or execute call
********************************************************************************

ALTER SESSION SET EVENTS '10046 trace name context forever, level 8'


call     count       cpu    elapsed       disk      query    current        rows
------- ------  -------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------  ----------
Parse        0      0.00       0.00          0          0          0           0
Execute      1      0.00       0.00          0          0          0           0
Fetch        0      0.00       0.00          0          0          0           0
------- ------  -------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------  ----------
total        1      0.00       0.00          0          0          0           0

Misses in library cache during parse: 0
Optimizer mode: ALL_ROWS
Parsing user id: 180  (TEST)

Elapsed times include waiting on following events:
  Event waited on                             Times   Max. Wait  Total Waited
  ----------------------------------------   Waited  ----------  ------------
  SQL*Net message to client                       1        0.00          0.00
  SQL*Net message from client                     1        7.35          7.35
********************************************************************************

BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.ENABLE(2000); END;


call     count       cpu    elapsed       disk      query    current        rows
------- ------  -------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------  ----------
Parse        1      0.00       0.00          0          0          0           0
Execute      1      0.00       0.00          0          0          0           1
Fetch        0      0.00       0.00          0          0          0           0
------- ------  -------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------  ----------
total        2      0.00       0.00          0          0          0           1

Misses in library cache during parse: 0
Optimizer mode: ALL_ROWS
Parsing user id: 180  (TEST)

Elapsed times include waiting on following events:
  Event waited on                             Times   Max. Wait  Total Waited
  ----------------------------------------   Waited  ----------  ------------
  SQL*Net message to client                       1        0.00          0.00
  SQL*Net message from client                     1        6.92          6.92
********************************************************************************

BEGIN populate_sql_trace_test(p_loops => 5); END;


call     count       cpu    elapsed       disk      query    current        rows
------- ------  -------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------  ----------
Parse        1      0.00       0.00          0          0          0           0
Execute      1      0.00       0.00          0          0          0           1
Fetch        0      0.00       0.00          0          0          0           0
------- ------  -------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------  ----------
total        2      0.00       0.00          0          0          0           1

Misses in library cache during parse: 1
Optimizer mode: ALL_ROWS
Parsing user id: 180  (TEST)

Elapsed times include waiting on following events:
  Event waited on                             Times   Max. Wait  Total Waited
  ----------------------------------------   Waited  ----------  ------------
  SQL*Net message to client                       1        0.00          0.00
  SQL*Net message from client                     1        0.00          0.00
********************************************************************************

INSERT INTO SQL_TRACE_TEST (ID, DESCRIPTION) 
VALUES
 (:B1 , 'Description for ' || :B1 )


call     count       cpu    elapsed       disk      query    current        rows
------- ------  -------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------  ----------
Parse        1      0.00       0.00          0          0          0           0
Execute      5      0.00       0.00          0          1         25           5
Fetch        0      0.00       0.00          0          0          0           0
------- ------  -------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------  ----------
total        6      0.00       0.00          0          1         25           5

Misses in library cache during parse: 1
Misses in library cache during execute: 1
Optimizer mode: ALL_ROWS
Parsing user id: 180  (TEST)   (recursive depth: 1)

Rows     Execution Plan
-------  ---------------------------------------------------
      0  INSERT STATEMENT   MODE: ALL_ROWS

********************************************************************************

SELECT COUNT(*) 
FROM
 SQL_TRACE_TEST


call     count       cpu    elapsed       disk      query    current        rows
------- ------  -------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------  ----------
Parse        1      0.00       0.00          0          0          0           0
Execute      1      0.00       0.00          0          0          0           0
Fetch        1      0.00       0.00          0          7          0           1
------- ------  -------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------  ----------
total        3      0.00       0.00          0          7          0           1

Misses in library cache during parse: 1
Optimizer mode: ALL_ROWS
Parsing user id: 180  (TEST)   (recursive depth: 1)

Rows     Execution Plan
-------  ---------------------------------------------------
      0  SELECT STATEMENT   MODE: ALL_ROWS
      0   SORT (AGGREGATE)
      0    TABLE ACCESS   MODE: ANALYZED (FULL) OF 'SQL_TRACE_TEST' 
               (TABLE)

********************************************************************************

COMMIT


call     count       cpu    elapsed       disk      query    current        rows
------- ------  -------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------  ----------
Parse        1      0.00       0.00          0          0          0           0
Execute      1      0.00       0.00          0          0          1           0
Fetch        0      0.00       0.00          0          0          0           0
------- ------  -------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------  ----------
total        2      0.00       0.00          0          0          1           0

Misses in library cache during parse: 0
Optimizer mode: ALL_ROWS
Parsing user id: 180  (TEST)   (recursive depth: 1)
********************************************************************************

BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.GET_LINES(:LINES, :NUMLINES); END;


call     count       cpu    elapsed       disk      query    current        rows
------- ------  -------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------  ----------
Parse        1      0.00       0.00          0          0          0           0
Execute      1      0.00       0.00          0          0          0           1
Fetch        0      0.00       0.00          0          0          0           0
------- ------  -------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------  ----------
total        2      0.00       0.00          0          0          0           1

Misses in library cache during parse: 0
Optimizer mode: ALL_ROWS
Parsing user id: 180  (TEST)

Elapsed times include waiting on following events:
  Event waited on                             Times   Max. Wait  Total Waited
  ----------------------------------------   Waited  ----------  ------------
  SQL*Net message to client                       1        0.00          0.00
  SQL*Net message from client                     1        8.56          8.56
********************************************************************************

ALTER SESSION SET EVENTS '10046 trace name context off'


call     count       cpu    elapsed       disk      query    current        rows
------- ------  -------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------  ----------
Parse        1      0.00       0.00          0          0          0           0
Execute      1      0.00       0.00          0          0          0           0
Fetch        0      0.00       0.00          0          0          0           0
------- ------  -------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------  ----------
total        2      0.00       0.00          0          0          0           0

Misses in library cache during parse: 0
Optimizer mode: ALL_ROWS
Parsing user id: 180  (TEST)



********************************************************************************

OVERALL TOTALS FOR ALL NON-RECURSIVE STATEMENTS

call     count       cpu    elapsed       disk      query    current        rows
------- ------  -------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------  ----------
Parse        4      0.00       0.00          0          0          0           0
Execute      5      0.00       0.00          0          0          0           3
Fetch        0      0.00       0.00          0          0          0           0
------- ------  -------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------  ----------
total        9      0.00       0.00          0          0          0           3

Misses in library cache during parse: 1

Elapsed times include waiting on following events:
  Event waited on                             Times   Max. Wait  Total Waited
  ----------------------------------------   Waited  ----------  ------------
  SQL*Net message to client                       4        0.00          0.00
  SQL*Net message from client                     4        8.56         22.84


OVERALL TOTALS FOR ALL RECURSIVE STATEMENTS

call     count       cpu    elapsed       disk      query    current        rows
------- ------  -------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------  ----------
Parse       10      0.05       0.05          0          0          0           0
Execute     18      0.03       0.03          0          1         26           5
Fetch       12      0.00       0.00          0         35          0           9
------- ------  -------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------  ----------
total       40      0.08       0.08          0         36         26          14

Misses in library cache during parse: 7
Misses in library cache during execute: 6

    8  user  SQL statements in session.
    7  internal SQL statements in session.
   15  SQL statements in session.
    2  statements EXPLAINed in this session.
********************************************************************************
Trace file: dev1_ora_367660.trc
Trace file compatibility: 10.01.00
Sort options: default

       1  session in tracefile.
       8  user  SQL statements in trace file.
       7  internal SQL statements in trace file.
      15  SQL statements in trace file.
      15  unique SQL statements in trace file.
       2  SQL statements EXPLAINed using schema:
           sys.plan_table
             Schema was specified.
             Existing table was used.
     146  lines in trace file.
      22  elapsed seconds in trace file.

For each statement executed by the session, the file contains a record of the parse, execute and fetch statistics, an execution plan where necessary and a list of session waits.

Trace Analyzer

In addition to TKPROF, Oracle provide another tool for analyzing SQL trace files called Trace Analyzer. This is available for download from Metalink and can be installed on any version of the database server from Oracle8i upwards.

Trace Analyzer reads a raw SQL Trace file generated by standard SQL Trace or by EVENT 10046 (Level 4, 8 or 12), and generates a comprehensive HTML report with performance related details: time summary, call summary (parse, execute, fetch), identification of top SQL, row source plan, explain plan, CBO statistics, wait events, values of bind variables, I/O summary per schema object, latches, hot blocks, etc.

The HTML report includes all the details found on TKPROF, plus additional information normally requested and used for a transaction performance analysis.

Query Contents of Trace Files

There are a number of ways to make trace files available to developers, but one simple way is to allow them query the contents of a trace file from SQL*Plus and spool it to a file on their local PC.

The following example creates a locked user with the necessary code to read the contents of specified trace files. This code is then made accessible to public and a directory object pointing to the trace location is created.

CONN / AS SYSDBA

-- Create locked user to hold code.
CREATE USER trace_user IDENTIFIED BY trace_user ACCOUNT LOCK;

-- Create a type and pipelined table function to read the specified trace file.
CREATE TYPE trace_user.t_trace_tab AS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(32767);
/

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION trace_user.get_trace_file (p_trace_file IN VARCHAR2)
  RETURN trace_user.t_trace_tab PIPELINED
AS
  l_file UTL_FILE.file_type; 
  l_text VARCHAR2(32767);
BEGIN
  l_file := UTL_FILE.fopen('TRACE_DIR', p_trace_file, 'r', 32767);
  BEGIN
    LOOP
      UTL_FILE.get_line(l_file, l_text);
      PIPE ROW (l_text);
    END LOOP;
  EXCEPTION
    WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN
      NULL;
  END;
  UTL_FILE.fclose(l_file);
  RETURN;
EXCEPTION
  WHEN OTHERS THEN
    PIPE ROW ('ERROR: ' || SQLERRM);
    IF UTL_FILE.is_open(l_file) THEN
      UTL_FILE.fclose(l_file);
    END IF;
    RETURN;
END;
/

-- Make the code accessible to PUBLIC.
GRANT EXECUTE ON trace_user.t_trace_tab TO PUBLIC;
GRANT EXECUTE ON trace_user.get_trace_file TO PUBLIC;
CREATE PUBLIC SYNONYM get_trace_file FOR trace_user.get_trace_file;

-- Create a directory object to the trace location.
CREATE OR REPLACE DIRECTORY trace_dir AS '/u01/app/oracle/diag/rdbms/db11g/DB11G/trace/';
GRANT READ ON DIRECTORY trace_dir TO trace_user;

With that in place we can see how a developer would create and return a trace file to their local PC.

-- Make sure the user has access to DBMS_MONITOR.
CONN / AS SYSDBA
GRANT EXECUTE ON dbms_monitor TO hr;

CONN hr/hr

-- Identify the current trace file.
SELECT value
FROM   v$diag_info
WHERE  name = 'Default Trace File';

VALUE
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
/u01/app/oracle/diag/rdbms/db11g/DB11G/trace/DB11G_ora_6309.trc

SQL>

-- Turn of tracing.
EXEC DBMS_MONITOR.session_trace_enable(waits=>TRUE, binds=>FALSE);

-- Do something you wish to trace.
SET LINESIZE 100
COLUMN employee_name FORMAT A30
COLUMN department_name FORMAT A20
COLUMN manager_name FORMAT A30

SELECT e.first_name || ' ' || e.last_name AS employee_name,
       d.department_name,
       e2.first_name || ' ' || e2.last_name AS manager_name
FROM   employees e
       JOIN departments d ON e.department_id = d.department_id
       JOIN employees e2 ON e.manager_id = e2.employee_id
WHERE  d.department_name = 'Finance'
ORDER BY d.department_name;

EMPLOYEE_NAME                  DEPARTMENT_NAME      MANAGER_NAME
------------------------------ -------------------- ------------------------------
Nancy Greenberg                Finance              Neena Kochhar
Luis Popp                      Finance              Nancy Greenberg
Jose Manuel Urman              Finance              Nancy Greenberg
Ismael Sciarra                 Finance              Nancy Greenberg
John Chen                      Finance              Nancy Greenberg
Daniel Faviet                  Finance              Nancy Greenberg

6 rows selected.

SQL> 

-- Turn off tracing.
EXEC DBMS_MONITOR.session_trace_disable;

-- Spool the contents of the relevant trace file to a local file.
SET PAGESIZE 0 FEEDBACK OFF TRIMSPOOL ON TAB OFF
SPOOL C:\tracefile.trc

SELECT *
FROM   TABLE(get_trace_file('DB11G_ora_6309.trc'));

SPOOL OFF
SET PAGESIZE 14 FEEDBACK ON

The developer can now use a local installation of TKPROF or SQL Developer to translate the trace file.

SQL Developer

SQL Developer will automatically format trace files opened using the "File > Open" menu or the "Open" toolbar button. On the resulting screen, select the "NonRecursive" or "All" filter option to show the formatted output. The image below shows the formatted trace file opened using SQL Developer.

SQL Developer Trace

MR Trace

Those clever people at Method R have built a great extension to SQL Developer called MR Trace that automates the process of getting trace files to your client PC.

For more information see:

Hope this helps. Regards Tim...

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